what are the major criticisms of psychoanalytic theory

Freud believed that development occurred in stages. Early critics of psychoanalysis believed that its theories were based too little on quantitative and experimental research, and too much on the clinical case study method. Many authors have attempted to integrate the various theories, with limited success. Jacques Derrida incorporated aspects of psychoanalytic theory into deconstruction in order to question what he called the ‘metaphysics of presence’. The idea of “unconscious” is contested because human behavior can be observed while human mental activity has to be inferred. As the psychoanalytic researcher Drew Westen puts it, “Critics have typically focused on a version of psychoanalytic theory—circa 1920 at best—that few contemporary analysts find compelling. Both Freud and psychoanalysis have been criticized in very extreme terms. Making the unconscious conscious. These tensions are the conditions upon which Freud’s work can operate. Oedipus is one of those things that becomes all the more dangerous the less people believe in it; then the cops are there to replace the high priests. The theory significantly influenced literary critics as they apply the approach of a tripartite model for analyzing the literary characters and its actions. defense mechanisms, reaction formation). Common to the modern critics is that they are more familiar than the psychoanalysts with Freud’s writings and life. One other criticism of his theory was directed on his idea of the unconscious mind. The belief appears to have taken on a life of its own. Two approaches are prominent: historical documentation and textual criticism. Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari, in their 1972 work Anti-Œdipus, take the cases of Gérard Mendel, Bela Grunberger and Janine Chasseguet-Smirgel, prominent members of the most respected associations (IPa), to suggest that, traditionally, psychoanalysis enthusiastically embraces a police state: “ As to those who refuse to be oedipalized in one form or another, at one end or the other in the treatment, the psychoanalyst is there to call the asylum or the police for help. The police on our side!—never did psychoanalysis better display its taste for supporting the movement of social repression, and for participating in it with enthusiasm. E. Fuller Torrey, writing in Witchdoctors and Psychiatrists (1986), stated that psychoanalytic theories have no more scientific basis than the theories of traditional native healers, “witchdoctors” or modern “cult” alternatives such as est. Karl Kraus, an Austrian satirist, was the subject of a book written by noted libertarian author Thomas Szasz. People like the Freudo-Marxist Wilhelm Reich redress this, as does Carl Gustav Jung by factoring in economic and political factors (such as relationship to the means of production in the case of Reich), culture and ideas like the paranormal in the case of Jung respectively. Ricoeur claimed that psychoanalysis emphasizes the polyvocal or many-voiced qualities of language, focusing on utterances that mean more than one thing. They use the sam… title = "Feminist criticism and psychoanalysis", abstract = "Feminism, psychoanalysis and literary interpretation have more in common than their early histories might seem to suggest – or promise. What is crucial to modern psychoanalytic theory and practice is the power of the unconscious and the transference phenomenon. psychoanalysis: Criticisms of and Changes in Freudian Psychoanalysis. One of the strengths of psychoanalytic theory is that it gives patients the opportunity to talk about problems with a professional, which could help relieve symptoms of psychological illness, according to About.com. process, psychoanalysis, psychodynamic therapy, meta-analysis T here is a belief in some quarters that psychodynamic concepts and treatments lack empirical support or that scientific evidence shows that other forms of treatment are more effective. The psychoanalytic theory cannot be adequately tested because it was created in such a manner that the evidence to support the theory could not possibly be refuted. However, there is no clean break between the theories of Freud and Jung. A survey of scientific research suggested that while personality traits corresponding to Freud’s oral, anal, Oedipal, and genital phases can be observed, they do not necessarily manifest as stages in the development of children. Thus Derrida thinks that even though Freud remains within a theologico-metaphysical tradition of “phallogocentrism”, Freud nonetheless criticizes that tradition. modern psychologists believe Freud's underestimated the role of learning and culture in shaping personality. For example: class, political ideology, ecosystem or even spirituality. Derrida also turns some of these ideas against Freud, to reveal tensions and contradictions in his work. in order to illuminate aspects of literature in its connection with conflicting psychological states. Jacques Lacan criticized the emphasis of some American and British psychoanalytical traditions on what he has viewed as the suggestion of imaginary “causes” for symptoms, and recommended the return to Freud. For example, if a client’s reaction was not consistent with the psychosexual theory then an alternate explanation would be given (e.g. Role of CBT in Enhancement of Emotional Intelligence. One of the criticism is that analytical psychotherapy is like a religion worship, according to McGowan(1974), in What’s Wrong With Jung, examines the lack of proof and scientific research in Jungian psychology. Other schools of psychology have produced alternative methods for psychotherapy, including behavior therapy, cognitive therapy, Gestalt therapy and person-centered psychotherapy. Critics of psychoanalytic theory claim that it grossly exaggerates and generalizes human behavior. As for the historical approach, many hitherto unknown documents have been Two later papers-"Freud and Jung: Contrasts" and the introduction to a book by W. M. Kranefeldt-together form a basis for further study of Jung's reassessment of psychoanalysis. Other commentators, such as Edward Timms, author of Karl Kraus – Apocalyptic Satirist, have argued that Kraus respected Freud, though with reservations about the application of some of his theories, and that his views were far less black-and-white than Szasz suggests. Luce Irigaray criticised psychoanalysis, employing Jacques Derrida’s concept of phallogocentrism to describe the exclusion of the woman from Freudian and Lacanian psychoanalytical theories. Yet it celebrates the side of Freud which emphasises the open-ended and improvisatory nature of psychoanalysis, and its methodical and ethical demand that the testimony of the analysand should be given prominence in the practice of analysis. Both Freud and psychoanalysis have been criticized in very extreme terms. Copyright © 2018 Psynso Inc. | Designed & Maintained by. However, with the publication of the Psychodynamic Diagnostic Manual much of this lack of cohesion has been resolved. Most psychoanalytic concepts, such as that idea or unconscious conflicts, cannot be empirically tested. Freud’s insistence, in the first chapter of The Ego and the Id, that philosophers will recoil from his theory of the unconscious is clearly a forbear to Derrida’s understanding of metaphysical ‘self-presence’. Among philosophers, Karl Popper argued that Freud’s theory of the unconscious was not falsifiable and therefore not scientific. Prioleau, Murdock, Brody reviewed several therapy-outcome studies and determined that psychotherapy is not different from placebo controls. Academicians repeat it to one For one, Freud's theory says that personality development occurs during childhood, but many modern psychologists say that this development is lifelong. Critics stated that the unconscious mind did not consist of hidden or repressed, passionate emotions. If you continue to use this site we will assume that you are happy with it. Together with Gilles Deleuze, Félix Guattari criticised the Oedipal structure. Sigmund Freud had major critics for his psychoanalytic theory right from the beginning. René Laforgue reported Martha Freud saying, “I must admit that if I did not realize how seriously my husband takes his treatments, I should think that psychoanalysis is a form of pornography.” To Martha there was something vulgar about psychoanalysis, and she dissociated herself from it. For example, Jung’s theories on alchemy as externalized individuation were rooted in Freud’s ideas on projection but factored in culture and spiritual teachings. Strong criticism of certain forms of psychoanalysis is offered by psychoanalytical theorists. Mario Bunge, an epistemologist from McGill University, Canada, says that the psychoanalysis is pseudoscience, mostly because of its lack of coherence or correspondence with other well-established branches of science, like neurology, neurophysiology and psychiatry. These studies also have not confirmed that such traits in adults result from childhood experiences (Fisher & Greenberg, 1977, p. 399). Karl Popper argued that psychoanalysis is a pseudoscience because its claims are not testable and cannot be refuted; that is, they are not falsifiable. For example, the philosopher Paul Ricoeur argued that psychoanalysis can be considered a type of textual interpretation or hermeneutics. While Grunberger and Chasseguet-Smirgel were still disguised under the pseudonym, Lacan remarked that for sure none of the authors belonged to his school, as none would debase themselves to such low drivel. Also, criticism has been raised against Freudian slips, saying they do not arise from unconscious motives, but rather confusion in word retrieval from memory. Exchanges between critics and defenders of psychoanalysis have often been so heated that they have come to be characterized as the Freud Wars. 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